Art since 1900 : modernism, antimodernism, postmodernism (Book, 2016) []
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Art since 1900 : modernism, antimodernism, postmodernism

Art since 1900 : modernism, antimodernism, postmodernism

Author: Hal Foster; Rosalind E Krauss; Yve-Alain Bois; B H D Buchloh; David Joselit
Publisher: London : Thames & Hudson, 2016. ©2016
Edition/Format:   Print book : Biography : English : Third editionView all editions and formats
Groundbreaking in both its content and its presentation, Art Since 1900 has been hailed as a landmark study in the history of art. Conceived by some of the most influential art historians of our time, this extraordinary book has now been revised, expanded and brought right up to date to include the latest developments in the study and practice of art. With a clear year-by-year structure, the authors present 130  Read more...

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Material Type: Biography
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Hal Foster; Rosalind E Krauss; Yve-Alain Bois; B H D Buchloh; David Joselit
ISBN: 9780500239537 0500239533
OCLC Number: 958112079
Notes: Previous edition: 2011.
Description: 896 pages : illustrations (chiefly colour) ; 28 cm
Contents: Introductions : Psychoanalysis in modernism and as method --
The social history of art: models and concepts --
Formalism and structuralism --
Poststructuralism and deconstruction --
Globalization, networks, and the aggregate as form --
1900-1909 --
1900 : Sigmund Freud publishes The interpretation of dreams: in Vienna; the rise of the expressive art of Gustav Klimt, Egon Schiele, and Oskar Kokoschka coincides with the emergence of psychoanalysis --
Henri Matisse visits Auguste Rodin in his Paris studio but rejects the elder artist's sculptural style --
1903 : Paul Gauguin dies in the Marquesas Islands In the South Pacific: the recourse to tribal art and primitivist fantasies In Gauguin influences the early work of André Derain, Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, and Ernst Ludwig Kirchner ; The exotic and the naive --
1906 : Paul Cezanne dies at Aix-en-Provence in southern France: following the retrospectives of Vincent van Gogh and Georges Seurat the preceding year, Cezanne's death casts Postimpressionism as the historical past, with Fauvism as its heir ; Roger Fry and the Bloomsbury Group --
1907 : With the stylistic inconsistencies and primitivist impulses of Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, Pablo Picasso launches the most formidable attack ever on mimetic representation ; Gertrude Stein --
1908 : Wilhelm Worringer publishes Abstraction and empathy, which contrasts abstract art with representational art as a withdrawal from the world versus an engagement with It: German Expressionism and English Vorticism elaborate this psychological polarity in distinctive ways --
1909 : F.T. Marinetti publishes the first Futurist manifesto on the front page of Le Figaro in Paris: for the first time, the avant-garde associates itself with media culture and positions itself in defiance of history and tradition ; Eadweard Muybridge and Etienne-Jules Marey --
1910-1919 : 1910 : Henri Matisse's Dance II and Music are condemned at the Salon d'Automne in Paris: in these pictures, Matisse pushes his concept of the "decorative" to an extreme, creating an expansive visual field of color that is difficult to behold --
1911: Pablo Picasso returns his "borrowed" Iberian stone heads to the Louvre Museum in Paris from which they had been stolen: he transforms his primitivist style and with Georges Braque begins to develop Analytical Cubism ; Guillaume Apollinaire --
1912 : Cubist collage Is Invented amid a set of conflicting circumstances and events: the continuing inspiration of Symbolist poetry, the rise of popular culture, and Socialist protests against the war In the Balkans --
1913 : Robert Delaunay exhibits his "Windows" paintings in Berlin: the initial problems and paradigms of abstraction are elaborated across Europe --
1914 : Vladimir Tatlin develops his constructions and Marcel Duchamp proposes his readymades, the first as a transformation of Cubism, the second as a break with It; in doing so, they offer complementary critiques of the traditional mediums of art ; The "Peau de I'Ours" --
1915 : Kazimir Malevich shows his Supremacist canvases at the "0.10" exhibition In Petrograd, thus bringing the Russian Formalist concepts of art and literature into alignment --
1916 : In Zurich, the international movement of Dada is launched in a double reaction to the catastrophe of World War I and the provocations of Futurism and Expressionism ; Dada journals ; Paul Strand enters the pages of Alfred Stieglitz's magazine Camera Work: the American avant-garde forms Itself around a complex relationship between photography and the other arts ; The Armory Show --
1917 : After two years of intense research Piet Mondrian breaks through to abstraction and goes on to invent Neoplasticism --
1917 : In October 1917, the journal De Stijl is launched by Theo van Doesburg in the small Dutch town of Leiden; it appears monthly until 1922, after which publication Is irregular, the last issue dates from 1932 as a posthumous homage to van Doesburg shortly after his death In a Swiss sanatorium --
1918 : Marcel Duchamp paints Tu m': his last ever painting summarizes the departures undertaken In his work, such as the use of chance, the promotion of the readymade, and photography's status as an "index" ; Rrose Selavy --
1919 : Pablo Picasso has his first solo exhibition in Paris In thirteen years: the onset of pastiche in his work coincides with a widespread antimodernist reaction ; Sergei Diaghilev and the Ballets Russe ; Rappel a I'ordre --
1920-1929 : 1920 : The Dada Fair is held in Berlin: the polarization of avant-garde culture and cultural traditions leads to a politicization of artistic practices and the emergence of photomontage as a new medium --
1921 : With Three musicians, Pablo Picasso enlists the classicism of Nicolas Poussin in the development of Synthetic Cubism, the reigning style of postwar modernism ; The members of the Moscow Institute of Artistic Culture define Constructivism as a logical practice responding to the demands of a new collective society ; Soviet institutions --
1922 : Hans Prinzhorn publishes Artistry of the mentally iII; the "art of the insane" is explored in the work of Paul Klee and Max Ernst --
1923 : The Bauhaus, the most influential school of modernist art and design in the twentieth century, holds its first public exhibition in Weimar, Germany --
1924 : André Breton publishes the first issue of La Révolution surréaliste, establishing the terms of Surrealist aesthetics ; Surrealist journals --
1925 ; While the Art Deco exhibition in Paris makes official the birth of modern kitsch, Le Corbusier's machine aesthetics becomes the bad dream of modernism and Aleksandr Rodchenko's Workers' Club advocates a new relationship between men and objects ; Black Deco ; Curator Gustav F. Hartlaub organizes the first exhibition of Neue Sachlichkeit painting at the Kunsthalle, Mannheim: a variation of the international tendencies of the rappel a l'ordre, this new "magic realism" signals the end of Expressionism and Dada practices in Germany ; Oskar Schlemmer publishes The Theater of the Bauhaus, presenting the mannequin and the automaton as models of the modern performer; other artists, especially women involved in Dada, explore the allegorical potential of the doll and the puppet ; On May 3, a public screening of avant-garde cinema titled "The absolute film" Is held in Berlin: on the program are experimental works by Hans Richter, Viking Eggeling, Walter Ruttmann, and Fernand Léger that continue the project of abstraction by filmic means --
1926 : El Lissitzky's Demonstration room and Kurt Schwitters's Merzbau are installed in Hanover, Germany: the architecture of the museum as archive and the allegory of modernist space as melancholia are dialectically conceived by the Constructivist and the Dadaist --
1927 : After working as a commercial artist in Brussels, René Magritte joins the Surrealist movement In Paris, where his art plays on the idioms of advertising and the ambiguities of language and representation ; Constantin Brancusi produces a stainless-steel cast of The newborn: his sculpture unleashes a battle between models of high art and industrial production, brought to a head in the US trial over his Bird in space ; Charles Sheeler is commissioned by Ford to document its new River Rouge plant: North American modernists develop a lyrical relation to the machine age, which Georgia O'Keeffe extends to the natural world ; MoMA and Alfred H. Barr, Jr --
1928 : The publication of "Unism in painting" by Wladyslaw Stzreminski, followed in 1931 by a book on sculpture he coauthored with Katarzyna Kobro, The composition of space, marks the apogee of the internationalization of Constructivism ; The publication of Die neue Typographie by Jan Tschichold confirms the impact of the Soviet avant-garde's production on book design and advertising In capitalist Western European countries, and ratifies the emergence of an international style --
1929 : The "Film und foto" exhibition, organized by the Deutscher Werkbund and held in Stuttgart from May 18 to July 7, displays a spectrum of international photographic practices and debates: the exhibition demarcates a climax in twentieth-century photography and marks the emergence of a new critical theory and historiography of the medium --
1930-1939 : 1930 : The introduction of mass consumer and fashion magazines in twenties and thirties Weimar Germany generates new frameworks for the production and distribution of photographic imagery and helps foster the emergence of a group of Important women photographers ; Georges Bataille reviews L'Art primitif in Documents, making apparent a rift within the avant-garde's relation to primitivism and a deep split within Surrealism ; Carl Einstein --
1931 : Alberto Giacometti, Salvador Dali, and André Breton publish texts on "the object of symbolic function" in the magazine Le Surrealisme au service de la révolution: Surrealism extends its aesthetic of fetishism and fantasy into the realm of object-making ; As Joan Miró reaffirms his vow to "assassinate painting" and Alexander Calder's delicate mobiles are replaced by the stolid stabiles, European painting and sculpture display a new sensibility that reflects Georges Bataille's concept of the "formless" --
1933 : Scandal breaks out over the portrait of Lenin by Diego Rivera in the murals for the Rockefeller Center: the Mexican mural movement produces public political mural work In various American locations and establishes a precedent for political avant-garde art in the United States --
1934 : At the First All Union Congress of Writers, Andrei Zhdanov lays down the doctrine of Soviet Socialist Realism ; In "The sculptor's aims," Henry Moore articulates a British aesthetic of direct carving In sculpture that mediates between figuration and abstraction, between Surrealism and Constructivism --
1935 : Walter Benjamin drafts "The Work of art in the age of mechanical reproduction," André Malraux initiates "The Museum without Walls," and Marcel Duchamp begins the Boîte-en-Valise: the impact of mechanical reproduction, surfacing into art through photography, is felt within aesthetic theory, art history, and art practice --
1936 : As part of Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal, Walker Evans, Dorothea Lange, and other photographers are commissioned to document rural America in the grip of the Great Depression ; Works Progress Administration --
1937 : The European powers contest one another in national pavilions of art, trade, and propaganda at the International Exhibition In Paris, while the Nazis open the "Degenerate`Art'" exhibition, a vast condemnation of modernist art, In Munich ; Naum Gabo, Ben Nicholson, and Leslie Martin publish Circle in London, solidifying the institutionalization of geometric abstraction ; Pablo Picasso unveils Guernica in the Spanish Republican pavilion of the International Exhibition in Paris --
1940-1944 : 1942 ; The depoliticization of the American avant-garde reaches the point of no return when Clement Greenberg and the editors of Partisan Review bid farewell to Marxism ; As World War II forces many Surrealists to emigrate from France to the United States, two shows in New York reflect on this condition of exile in different ways ; Exiles and émigrés ; Peggy Guggenheim --
1943 : James A. Porter's Modern Negro art, the first scholarly study of African-American art, is published In New York as the Harlem Renaissance promotes race awareness and heritage --
1944 : Piet Mondrian dies, leaving unfinished Victory boogie woogie, a work that exemplifies his conception of painting as a destructive enterprise ; At the outbreak of World War II, the "Old Masters" of modern art, Matisse, Picasso, Braque, and Bonnard, consider their refusal to flee occupied France as an act of resistance against barbarity: discovered at the Liberation, the style they had developed during the war years presents a challenge to the new generation of artists --
Roundtable: Art at mid-century --
1945-1949 : 1945 : David Smith makes Pillar of Sunday: constructed sculpture is caught between the craft basis of traditional art and the industrial basis of modern manufacturing --
1946 : Jean Dubuffet exhibits his "hautes pâtes," which confirm the existence of a new scatological trend in postwar French art, soon to be named "informel" ; Art brut --
1947 : Josef Albers begins his "Variant" paintings at Black Mountain College In North Carolina a year after Laszlo Moholy-Nagy dies in Chicago: imported to the United States, the model of the Bauhaus is transformed by different artistic imperatives and institutional pressures ; The publication of Possibilities in New York marks the coalescence of Abstract Expressionism as a movement --
1949 : Life magazine asks its readers "Is he the greatest living painter in the United States?": the work of Jackson Pollock emerges as the symbol of advanced art ; Cobra, a loose band of young artists from Copenhagen, Brussels, and Amsterdam, launches Its eponymous magazine, in which they advocate a return to "the vital source of life"; meanwhile in England, the New Brutalists propose a bare aesthetic adequate to the austere conditions of the postwar world --
1950-1959 : 1951 : Barnett Newman's second exhibition fails: he is ostracized by his fellow Abstract Expressionists, only later to be hailed as a father figure by the Minimalist artists --
1953 : Composer John Cage collaborates on Robert Rauschenberg's Tire print: the indexical imprint is developed as a weapon against the expressive mark in a range of work by Rauschenberg, Ellsworth Kelly, and Cy Twombly --
1955 : In their first exhibition in Tokyo, the artists of the Gutai group propose a new reading of Jackson Pollock's drip canvases that engages with traditional Japanese aesthetics and interprets the phrase "action painting" in a literal sense ; The "Le mouvement" show at the Galerie Denise René in Paris launches kineticism --
1956 : The exhibition "This is Tomorrow" in London marks the culmination of research into postwar relations between art, science, technology, product design, and popular culture undertaken by the Independent Group, forerunners of British Pop art --
1957 : Two small vanguard groups, the Lettrist International and the Imaginist Bauhaus, merge to form the Situationist International, the most politically engaged of all postwar movements ; Two theses from The Society of the Spectacle ; Ad Reinhardt writes "Twelve rules for a new academy": as avant-garde paradigms in painting are reformulated in Europe, the monochrome and grid are explored in the United States by Reinhardt, Robert Ryman, Agnes Martin, and others --
1958 : Jasper Johns's Target with four faces appears on the cover of Artnews magazine: for some artists like Frank Stella, Johns presents a model of painting in which figure and ground are fused in a single image-object; for others, he opens up the use of everyday signs and conceptual ambiguities alike ; Ludwig Wittgenstein --
1959 : Lucio Fontana has his first retrospective: he uses kitsch associations to question idealist modernism, a critique extended by his protegé Piero Manzoni ; 1959 ; At the San Francisco Art Association, Bruce Conner shows CHILD, a mutilated figure in a high chair made in protest against capital punishment: a practice of assemblage and environment is developed on the West Coast by Conner, Wallace Berman, Ed Kienholz, and others that is more scabrous than its equivalents in New York, Paris, or elsewhere ; The Museum of Modern Art in New York mounts "New Images of Man": existentialist aesthetics extends into a Cold War politics of figuration in the work of Alberto Giacometti, Jean Dubuffet, Francis Bacon, Willem de Kooning, and others ; Art and the Cold War ; Richard Avedon's Observations and Robert Frank's The Americans establish the dialectical parameters of New York School photography ; The Manifesto of Neoconcrete Art is published in Rio de Janeiro as a double spread of the daily newspaper Jornal do Brasil, replacing the rationalist interpretation of geometric abstraction that was prevalent at the time with a phenomenological one --
1960-1969 : 1960 : Critic Pierre Restany organizes a group of diverse artists in Paris to form Nouveau Realisme, redefining the paradigms of collage, the readymade, and the monochrome ; The neo-avant-garde ; Clement Greenberg publishes "Modernist Painting": his criticism reorients itself, and in its new guise shapes the debates of the sixties ; Leo Steinberg and the flatbed picture plane ; Roy Lichtenstein and Andy Warhol start to use cartoons and advertisements as sources for paintings, followed by James Rosenquist, Ed Ruscha, and others: American Pop art is born --
1961 : In December, Claes Oldenburg opens The store in New York's East Village, an "environment" that mimicked the setting of surrounding cheap shops and from which all the Items were for sale: throughout the winter and the following spring, ten different "happenings" would be performed by Oldenburg's Ray Gun Theater in The store location --
1962 : In Wiesbaden, West Germany, George Maciunas organizes the first of a series of international events that mark the formation of the Fluxus movement ; In Vienna, a group of artists including Günter Brus, Otto Mühl, and Hermann Nitsch come together to form Viennese Actionism ; Spurred by the publication of The great experiment: Russian art 1863-1922 by Camilla Gray, Western interest revives in the Constructivist principles of Vladimir Tatlin and Aleksandr Rodchenko, which are elaborated in different ways by younger artists such as Dan Flavin, Carl Andre, Sol LeWitt, and others ; Artforum ; Clement Greenberg is the first to acknowledge the abstract side of early Pop art, a characteristic that would feature time and again in the work of its leading proponents and those who followed them --
1963 : After publishing two manifestos with the painter Eugen Schönebeck, Georg Baselitz exhibits Die grosse Nacht im Eimer (Great night down the drain) in Berlin --
1964 : On July 20, the twentieth anniversary of the failed Stauffenberg coup against Hitler, Joseph Beuys publishes his fictitious autobiography and generates an outbreak of public violence at the "Festival of New Art" in Aachen, West Germany ; Thirteen most wanted men by Andy Warhol is installed, momentarily, on the facade of the State Pavilion at the World's Fair in New York --
1965 : Donald Judd publishes "Specific objects": Minimalism receives its theorization at the hands of its major practitioners, Judd and Robert Morris ; Maurice Merleau-Ponty --
1966 : Marcel Duchamp completes his installation Etant Donnés in the Philadelphia Museum of Art: his mounting influence on younger artists climaxes with the posthumous revelation of this new work ; The exhibition "Eccentric abstraction" opens in New York: the work of Louise Bourgeois, Eva Hesse, Yayoi Kusama, and others points to an expressive alternative to the sculptural language of Minimalism --
1967 : Publishing "A tour of the monuments of Passaic, New Jersey," Robert Smithson marks "entropy" as a generative concept of artistic practice in the late sixties ; The Italian critic Germano Celant mounts the first Arte Povera exhibition ; For their first manifestation, the four artists of the French group BMPT patin in public, each artist repeating exactly from canvas to canvas a simple configuration of his choice: their form of Conceptualist painting is the latest in a line of attacks against "official" abstraction in postwar France --
1968 : Two major museums committed to th most advanced European and American art of the sixties: The Stedelijk Van Abbermuseum in Eindhoven and the Städtisches Museum Abtelberg in Mönchengladbach, exhibit the work of Bernd and Hilla Becher, placing them at the forefront of an interest in Conceptual art and photography ; Conceptual art manifests itself in publications by Sol LeWitt, Dan Graham, and Lawrence Weiner, while Seth Siegelaub organizes its first exhibitions ; Artists' journals ; Deskilling --
1969 : The exhibition "When attitudes become form" in Bern and London surveys Postminimalist developments, while "Anti-illusion: procedures/materials" in New York focuses on Process art, the three principle aspects of which are elaborated by Richard Serra, Robert Morris, and Eva Hesse --
1970-1979 : 1970 : Michael Asher installs his Pomona College Project: the rise of site-specific work opens up a logical field between modernist sculpture and Conceptual art --
1971 : The Guggenheim Museum in New York cancels Hans Haacke's show and suppresses Daniel Buren's contribution to the Sixth Guggenheim International Exhibition: practices of institutional critique encounter the resistance of the Minimalist generation ; Michel Foucault --
1972 : Marcel Broodthaers installs his "Musée d'Art Moderne, Département des Aigles, Section des Figures," in Düsseldorf, West Germany ; The international exhibition Documenta 5, held in Kassel, West Germany, marks the institutional acceptance of Conceptual art in Europe ; Learning from Las Vegas is published: inspired by Las Vegas as well as Pop art, the architects Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown eschew "the duck," or building as sculptural form, in favor of "the decorated shed," in which Pop symbols are foregrounded, thus setting up the stylistic terms of postmodern design --
1973 : The Kitchen Center for Video, Music and Dance opens its own space in New York: video art claims an institutional space between visual and Performance art, television and film --
1974 : With Trans-fixed, in which Chris Burden in nailed to a Volkswagen Beetle, American Performance art reaches an extreme limit of physical presence, and many of its adherents abandon, moderate, or otherwise transform its practice --
1975 : As filmmaker Laura Mulvey publishes her landmark essay "Visual pleasure and narrative cinema," feminist artists like Judy Chicago and Mary Kelly develop different positions on the representation of women ; Theory journals ; Ilya Kabakov completes his series of albums Ten characters, an important monument of Moscow Conceptualism --
1976 : In New York the founding of P.S.1 coincides with the Metropolitan Museum's "King Tut" exhibition: important shifts in the institutional structure of the art world are registered by both alternative spaces and the blockbuster show --
1977 : The "Pictures" exhibition identifies a group of young artists whose strategies of appropriation and critiques of originality advance the notion of "postmodern" in art ; Harmony Hammond defends feminist abstraction in the newly founded journal Heresies --
1980-1989 : 1980 : Metro Pictures opens in New York: a new group of galleries emerges in order to exhibit young artists involved in a questioning of the photographic image and its uses in news, advertisting, and fashion ; Jean Baudrillard --
1984 : Victor Buren delivers his lecture "The absence of presence: Conceptualism and Post-Modernisms": the publication of this and other essays by Allan Sekula and Martha Rosler signals a new approach to the legacies of Anglo-American photoconceptualism and the writing of photographic history and theory ; Fredric Jameson publishes "Postmodernism, or the cultural logic of late capitalism," as the debate over postmodernism extends beyond art and architecture into cultural politics, and divides into two contrary positions ; Cultural studies --
1986 : "Endgame: reference and simulation in recent painting and sculpture" opens in Boston: as some artists play on the collapse of sculpture into commodities, others underscore the new prominence of design and display --
1987 : The first ACT-UP action is staged: activism in art in reignited by the AIDS crisis, as collaborative groups and political interventions come to the fore, and a new kind of queer aesthetics is developed ; The USS art wars --
Gerhard Richter paints October 18, 1977: German artists contemplate the possibility of the renewal of history painting ; Jürgen Habermas --
1989 : "Les magiciens de la terre," a selection of art from several continents, opens in Paris: postcolonial discourse and multicultural debates affect the production as well as the presentation of contemporary art ; Aboriginal art --
1990-1999 : 1992 : Fred Wilson presents Mining the museum in Baltimore: institutional critique extends beyond the museum, and an anthropological model of project art based on fieldwork is adapted by a wide range of artists ; Interdisciplanarity --
1993 : Martin Jay publishes Downcast eyes, a survey of the denigration of vision in modern philosophy: this critique of visuality is explored by a number of contemporary artists ; As Rachel Whiteread's House, a casting of a terrace house in east London, is demolished, an innovative group of women artists comes to the fore in Britain ; In New York, the Whitney Biennial foregrounds work focused on identity amid the emergence of a new form of politicized art by African-American artists --
1994 : A mid-career exhibition of Mike Kelley highlights a pervasive concern with states of regression and abjection, while Robert Gover, Kiki Smith, and others use figures of the broken body to address questions of sexuality and mortality ; William Kentridge completes Felix in exile, joining Raymond Pettibon and others in demonstrating the renewed importance of drawing --
1997 : Santu Mofokeng exhibits The Black photo album/Look at me: 1890-1950 in the 2nd Johannesburg Biennale --
1988 : An exhibition of large video projections by Bill Viola tours several museums: the projected image becomes a pervasive format in contemporary art ; The spectacularization of art ; McLuhan, Kittler, and new media --
2000-2015 : 2001 : A mid-career exhibition of Andreas Gursky at the Museum of Modern Art in New York signals the new dominance of a pictorial photography, which is often effected through digital means --
2003 : Whit exhibits such as "Utopia station" and "Zone of urgency," the Venice Biennale exemplifies the informal and discursive nature of much recent artmaking and curating --
2007 : With a large retrospective at the Cité de la Musique, Paris acknowledges the importance of American artist Christian Marclay for the future of avant-garde art; the French foreign ministry expresses in the its own belief in this future by sending Sophie Calle to represent France at the Venice Biennale; while the Brooklyn Academy of Music commissions the South African William Kentridge to design the sets for their production of The magic flute ; Brian O'Doherty and the "white cube" ; "Unmonumental: the object in the 21st century" opens in New York's New Museum: the show marks a new focus on assemblage and accumulations among a younger generation of sculptors ; At Damien Hirst exhibits For the love of God, a platinum cast of a human skull studded with diamonds costing £50 million, some art is explicitly positioned as a media sensation and a market investment --
2009 : Tania Bruguera presents Generic capitalism at the multimedia conference "Our literal speed," a performance that visualizes the assumed bonds and networks of trust and likemindedness among its art-world audience by transgressing those very bonds ; Jutta Koether shows "Lux interior" at Reena Spaulings Gallery in New York, an exhibition that introduces performance and installation into the heart of painting's meaning: the impact of networks on even the most traditional of aesthetic mediums, painting, is widespread among artists in Europe and the United States ; Harun Farocki exhibits a range of works on the subject of war and vision at the Ludwig Museum in Cologne and Raven Row in London that demonstrate the relationship between popular forms of new-media entertainment such as video games and the conduct of modern war --
2010 : Ai Weiwei's large-scale installation Sunflower seeds opens in the Turbine Hall of London's Tate Modern: Chinese artists respond to China's rapid modernization and economic growth with works that both engage with the country's abundant labor market and morph into social and mass-employment projects in their own right ; French artist Claire Fontaine, whose "operation" by two human assistants is itself an explicit division of labor, dramatizes the economies of art in a major retrospective at the Museum of Contemporary Art in North Miami, Florida: the show marks the emergence of the avatar as a new form of artistic subjecthood --
2015 : As Tate Modern, the Museum of Modern Art, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art plan further expansions, the Whitney Museum of American Art opens its new building, capping a period of international growth in exhibition space for modern and contemporary art including performance and dance --
Roundtable : The predicament of contemporary art.
Other Titles: Art since nineteen hundred
Responsibility: Hal Foster, Rosalind Krauss, Yves Alain Bois, Benjamin H.D. Buchloh, David Joselit.


Includes the developments in the study and practice of art. With a clear year-by-year structure, this book presents 130 articles, each focusing on a crucial event - such as the creation of a seminal  Read more...


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'The definitive history of twentieth-century art ... spectacular, and painstakingly conceived' - Gaby Wood, Observer 'The book is important, not because it gives neat answers but because it raises Read more...

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