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The Science and Archaeology of Materials : An Investigation of Inorganic Materials.

Author: Julian Henderson
Publisher: Florence Taylor and Francis, 2003. ©2007.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
The Science and Archaeology of Materials is set to become the definitive work in the archaeology of materials. Henderson's highly illustrated work is an accessible and fascinating textbook which will be essential reading for all practical archaeologists. With clear sections on a wide range of materials including ceramics, glass, metals and stone, this work examines the very foundations of archaeological study.  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version
Henderson, Julian
The Science and Archaeology of Materials : An Investigation of Inorganic Materials
Florence : Taylor and Francis,c2003
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Julian Henderson
ISBN: 9781135953102 1135953104
OCLC Number: 1058481453
Notes: 6.2 Flint and chert.
Description: 1 online resource (350 pages)
Contents: Cover --
Half Title --
Title Page --
Copyright Page --
Dedication --
Table of Contents --
List of figures and tables --
Preface --
Acknowledgements --
1. Introduction --
2. Techniques of Scientific Analysis --
2.1 Introduction --
2.2 Destructive techniques --
2.3 Non-destructive and micro-destructive techniques --
3. Glass --
3.1 Glass as a material --
3.2 The raw materials of ancient glass production --
3.2.1 The alkalis --
3.2.2 Silica sources --
3.2.3 The use of lead --
3.2.4 Calcium --
3.2.5 Glass coloration --
3.2.5.1 Cobalt blue glass --
3.2.5.2 Translucent turquoise blue and red glasses --
opaque red glass --
3.2.5.3 Iron-green and purple glasses --
3.2.5.4 Opaque white, turquoise and yellow glasses --
3.2.5.5 Other opacifiers --
3.2.5.6 Glass decolorisers --
3.3 Glass-making/fritting --
3.4 Glass furnaces --
3.4.1 Interpreting the evidence --
3.4.2 The earliest furnaces --
3.4.3 Roman furnaces --
3.4.4 Early medieval, Islamic and other 'southern' glass furnaces --
3.4.5 'Northern' and later types of glass furnaces --
3.5 Glass-working --
3.6 The chemical compositions of ancient glasses --
3.7 The working properties of soda-lime-silica glass --
3.8 Ritual aspects --
3.9 The origins of glass and its early production in the Mediterranean and Mesopotamia --
3.9.1 Introduction --
3.9.2 The origins of glass: fuel-ash slags, glazed stones and faience --
3.9.3 Chemical characteristics of early glass in the Mediterranean and Mesopotamia --
3.9.4 The archaeological inference --
3.10 Roman glass production: refined specialisation or mass-production --
3.10.1 Introduction --
3.10.2 Specialised technology of the Portland vase and Lycurgus cup --
3.10.3 Mass-produced greenish Roman glass --
3.10.4 Scientific investigations --
3.11 Early medieval glass in Europe: the continuation of a Roman tradition? --
3.11.1 Introduction. 3.11.2 Glass production at Ribe, Jutland --
3.11.3 Scientific investigations --
3.11.4 The archaeological inference --
3.12 The rise of the eAbbasids and glass production in early Islamic Syria --
3.12.1 Introduction --
3.12.2 Glass production at al-Raqqa on the Euphrates: the industrial context --
3.12.3 The glass tell, Tell Zujaj --
3.12.3.1 The late workshop phase --
3.12.3.2 The glass workshop --
3.12.4 Dating of the site --
3.12.5 Other evidence for the glass industry --
3.12.6 Scientific investigations of the glass and allied materials --
3.12.7 Scientific analysis of the frit --
3.12.8 Summary --
3.13 Seventeenth-century glass production in Europe --
3.13.1 Introduction --
3.13.2 The production and use of sixteenth-seventeenth-century glass goblets and beakers in Britain --
3.13.3 The glass vessel forms --
3.13.4 Chemical investigations --
3.13.5 Chemical composition and vessel form --
3.13.6 The importance of producing colourless glass --
3.13.7 Glass-house compositions? --
3.13.8 Summary of scientific investigations --
3.13.9 Correlations of vessel form, economic value and chemical compositions --
3.13.10 Summary --
4. Ceramics --
4.1 Introduction --
4.2 The raw materials of pottery production --
4.2.1 Clays and their origins --
4.2.2 The formation of clays from the earth's crust --
4.2.3 The definition of clays --
4.3 Pottery manufacture --
4.3.1 The preparation of clays for potting --
4.3.2 Plasticity and its effect on shaping the pot --
4.3.3 Shaping the pot --
4.3.4 Decorating the pot --
4.3.5 Glazes: their technology, chemical composition, colouring --
the use of pigments --
4.3.5.1 The classification of ancient glaze chemical compositions --
4.3.5.2 Glaze colorants and the use of pigments --
4.3.6 Clay drying --
4.3.7 The texture of clay and clay inclusions --
4.3.8 Additions to clays (temper) and cultural choice. 4.3.9 The conditions of firing --
4.3.10 What happens when clay is fired? --
4.3.11 Types of firing and the use of kilns --
4.3.11.1 'Open firing --
4.3.11.2 Pottery kilns --
4.3.11.3 The fuels used --
4.4 The changing modes of Iron Age pottery production in Britain during the late Iron Age --
4.4.1 The socio-economic context --
4.4.2 Ceramic production in southern Britain during the late Iron Age --
4.4.2.1 Introduction of the potters wheel and its effect on local production --
4.4.3 Salt briquetage production and distribution --
4.4.4 Conclusions --
4.5 The production and distribution of early medieval pottery in Britain --
4.5.1 Introduction --
4.5.2 The study of Anglo-Saxon and later pottery production in the Thames valley --
4.5.2.1 Early Saxon pottery (fifth-seventh centuries) --
4.5.2.2 Other studies of early-middle Saxon 'plain wares --
4.5.3 Mid-Saxon pottery (seventh-ninth centuries) in the Thames valley --
4.5.4 Late Saxon and early medieval pottery (ninth-eleventh centuries) and early towns --
4.5.5 Conclusions --
4.6 The manufacture of celadons --
4.6.1 Oriental ceramic bodies: proto-porcelains, porcelains and stonewares, including celadons --
4.6.2 Green glazed wares and the development of glaze colour in celadons --
4.6.3 The archaeological evidence for celadon production at Yaozhou --
4.6.4 Evidence of celadon production organisa℗Ưtion from mould inscriptions --
4.6.5 Scientific investigation of Yaozhou technology --
4.6.5.1 The glazes --
4.6.5.2 The pottery bodies --
4.6.5.3 The moulds --
4.6.5.4 The saggers --
4.6.5.5 Analysis of Yaozhou raw materials --
4.7 Iznik: Ottoman court ceramics and the development of 'fritware' --
4.7.1 Introduction --
4.7.2 The possible origins and the characteristics of stonepaste/fritware and maiolica/'faience' technology --
4.7.3 Iznik --
4.7.4 The research questions. 4.7.5 Evidence for the production of Iznik and other 'fritware' --
4.7.6 Historical evidence for the production of Iznik --
4.7.7 The date and range of decorative types --
4.7.8 The technology of typical Iznik ceramic bodies examined --
4.7.9 Fifteenth- and sixteenth-century glaze technology and the development of colours --
4.7.10 Did local Miletus ware, imported Chinese porcelain, Masters of Tabriz tiles and pottery, and Abraham of Kiitahya ware influence the development of Iznik? --
4.7.11 Production and the 'art of the state' --
4.7.12 Conclusions --
5. Metals --
5.1 Metals as materials --
5.2 The range of metals used and their ores (copper, iron, tin, zinc, lead, gold, silver, bronze and brass) --
5.3 Locating and mining ores --
5.4 Ore sorting --
5.5 The heat-treatment of metals: the process of smelting --
5.5.1 The non-slagging process --
5.5.2 The slagging process --
5.6 The evidence of furnaces, their construction and use --
5.6.1 Air supply --
5.6.2 Fuel supply and its effect on the environment --
5.6.3 Pollution --
5.7 The heat-treatment of metals: refining and purification --
5.7.1 The matte smelting process (for copper) --
5.7.2 Iron alloys (and steel 'working') --
5.7.3 Zinc --
5.7.4 Lead --
5.7.5 Gold --
5.7.6 Cupellation of lead-silver ores --
5.7.7 Brass --
5.7.8 Other alloys of copper --
with arsenic, antimony and nickel --
5.7.9 Mercury --
5.8 Early copper production in Wadi Feinan, Jordan --
5.8.1 Introduction --
5.8.2 The ore deposits --
5.8.3 Evidence for early ore exploitation and metallurgical activity in Palestine --
5.8.4 The characteristics of metallurgical activity at Wadi Feinan --
5.9 Scientific studies of copper and bronze in Europe --
the potential for characterisation --
5.9.1 Introduction --
5.9.2 The role of lead isotope analysis --
5.9.3 Some studies of Mediterranean metal work. 5.9.4 The chemical analysis and lead isotope analysis of Bronze Age metalwork found in Britain --
5.9.4.1 Introduction --
5.9.4.2 Chemical compositions of British Bronze Age metalwork --
5.9.4.3 The relationship of chemical compositions to lead isotope determinations --
5.10 Early copper and copper alloy production in Thailand --
5.10.1 Introduction --
5.10.2 North-east Thailand: Ban Na Di and Ban Chiang --
5.10.2.1 Scientific analysis of the metal --
5.10.2.2 The social significance of bronze metallurgy at Ban Na Di --
5.10.2.3 Ban Chiang --
5.10.3 The Phu Wiang region --
5.10.4 North-east Thailand in the first millennium BC: evidence from Phu Lon --
5.10.4.1 The mining evidence --
5.10.4.2 The Pottery flat ore-dressing and metal casting area --
5.10.4.3 Social distinctions and the degree of industrial specialisation in north-east Thailand --
5.10.5 Central Thailand: evidence from Non Pa Wai and Nil Kham Haeng of the Ban Chiang cultural tradition --
5.10.6 Nil Kham Haeng --
5.10.7 The degree of specialisation in central Thailand --
5.11 Technological innovation and the case of iron --
5.11.1 Technological innovation --
5.11.2 Innovation and iron --
5.12 The production of iron in Iron Age Britain --
5.12.1 Iron Age iron --
5.12.2 Prehistoric iron production in north-west Wales --
5.12.2.1 Bryn y Caste 11 --
5.12.2.2 Crawcwellt West --
5.12.2.3 The experimental reconstruction of iron-smelting --
5.12.2.4 An iron-smelting experiment based on excavated evidence --
5.12.2.5 Scientific study of iron-working: the production of a currency bar --
5.12.2.6 Technological implications --
5.13 The chemical characterisation of precious metals? --
5.13.1 Introduction --
5.13.2 Compositional links between the New World and Europe through the use of gold and silver --
5.13.3 The silver coins --
5.13.4 The gold coins --
6. Stone --
6.1 Introduction.

Abstract:

The Science and Archaeology of Materials is set to become the definitive work in the archaeology of materials. Henderson's highly illustrated work is an accessible and fascinating textbook which will be essential reading for all practical archaeologists. With clear sections on a wide range of materials including ceramics, glass, metals and stone, this work examines the very foundations of archaeological study. Anyone interested in ancient technologies, especially those involving high temperatures, kilns and furnaces will be able to follow in each chapter how raw materials are refined, transformed and shaped into objects. This description is then followed by appropriate case studies which provide a new chronological and geographical example of how scientific and archaeological aspects can and do interact. They include: *Roman pale green and highly decorated glass *17th Century glass in Britain and Europe *the effect of the introduction of the wheel on pottery technology *the technology of Celadon ceramics *early copper metallurgy in the Middle East *chemical analysis and lead isotope analysis of British Bronzes *early copper alloy metallurgy in Thailand *the chemical analysis of obsidian and its distribution *the origins of the Stonehenge bluestones This book shows how archaeology and science intersect and fe ed off each other. Modern scientific techniques have provided data which, when set within a fully integrated archaeological context, have the potential of contributing to mainstream archaeology. This holistic approach generates a range of connections which benefits both areas and will enrich archaeological study in the future.

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Glass -- 3.1 Glass as a material -- 3.2 The raw materials of ancient glass production -- 3.2.1 The alkalis -- 3.2.2 Silica sources -- 3.2.3 The use of lead -- 3.2.4 Calcium -- 3.2.5 Glass coloration -- 3.2.5.1 Cobalt blue glass -- 3.2.5.2 Translucent turquoise blue and red glasses -- opaque red glass -- 3.2.5.3 Iron-green and purple glasses -- 3.2.5.4 Opaque white, turquoise and yellow glasses -- 3.2.5.5 Other opacifiers -- 3.2.5.6 Glass decolorisers -- 3.3 Glass-making\/fritting -- 3.4 Glass furnaces -- 3.4.1 Interpreting the evidence -- 3.4.2 The earliest furnaces -- 3.4.3 Roman furnaces -- 3.4.4 Early medieval, Islamic and other \'southern\' glass furnaces -- 3.4.5 \'Northern\' and later types of glass furnaces -- 3.5 Glass-working -- 3.6 The chemical compositions of ancient glasses -- 3.7 The working properties of soda-lime-silica glass -- 3.8 Ritual aspects -- 3.9 The origins of glass and its early production in the Mediterranean and Mesopotamia -- 3.9.1 Introduction -- 3.9.2 The origins of glass: fuel-ash slags, glazed stones and faience -- 3.9.3 Chemical characteristics of early glass in the Mediterranean and Mesopotamia -- 3.9.4 The archaeological inference -- 3.10 Roman glass production: refined specialisation or mass-production -- 3.10.1 Introduction -- 3.10.2 Specialised technology of the Portland vase and Lycurgus cup -- 3.10.3 Mass-produced greenish Roman glass -- 3.10.4 Scientific investigations -- 3.11 Early medieval glass in Europe: the continuation of a Roman tradition? -- 3.11.1 Introduction.<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:exampleOfWork<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/id\/326377970<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:genre<\/a> \"Electronic books<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:inLanguage<\/a> \"en<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isSimilarTo<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/326377970#CreativeWork\/the_science_and_archaeology_of_materials_an_investigation_of_inorganic_materials<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"The Science and Archaeology of Materials : An Investigation of Inorganic Materials.<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:productID<\/a> \"1058481453<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:url<\/a> <http:\/\/ebookcentral.proquest.com\/lib\/qut\/detail.action?docID=1144554<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:workExample<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/isbn\/9781135953102<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nwdrs:describedby<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/title\/-\/oclc\/1058481453<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n\n

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